The characteristics of biomass will determine production processes including die shapes and characteristics of wood pellets product. Woody biomass is the most common and popular biomass of the biomass pelletisation. Die shape can not be common or generic for all types of biomass because it has its own characteristics. The efficient pelleting process will be produced pellets product with the amount of powder or fine which is very little, that is meaning almost all the particles of the material that is fed into the pelletiser converted into pellets. Judging sequence of processes that occur in the pelletiser, the biomass will have the following things before finally formed into pellets.
A number of materials from a particular timber, there is an expanding again when exiting from the pelletiser or in general the compaction equipmnent. This phenomenon is more easily seen in briquettes because it was bigger than pellets. This happens because these materials absorb more air from the atmosphere to add moisture to the pellets or briquettes, whereas when the particle material into the die in the presence of strong pressure and high temperature, the amount of water vapor in the particles of the material will come out and so is lignin serves as the glue will come out at this stage.
On the specifics of wood pellets also there is little difference of quality, logistics and consumer needs between Europe and the United States. The difference between the others, especially that on wood pellets for the European market generally use a die with a size of 6 mm, while for the US market generally use the die to the size of a quarter inch or 6.35 mm or it could be using equipment that is more suitable, for example, to adjust to the European, EN method while the Americans with ASTM method. But the different sectors also allows the use of different pellet sizes. Most retailers in Europe using a 6 mm pellet size, so that when using the US standard with the size of a quarter inch or 6.35 mm and after production also will typically expand to 6.5 mm making the European market less acceptable. In addition the European market also liked the wood pellets with a length of 1.5 to 2 cm, so it is not too short and not too long. Durability is also an important factor for the target market, the European issuing durability requirements limit is 97.5 primarily for industrial bulk market, but for the bulk of residential delivery majority of distributors are looking for products with a durability from 98.5 to 99.0. This is because the residential delivery typically use pneumatic conveyor and the strong desire to reduce fine (powder).
The market target aso will determine how the process of the production of wood pellets. Asian markets with relatively new age do not yet qualify as strict as Europe or America with the target users are also a number of differences. A large number of requests with strict quality also makes the need for reliable equipment or machinery becomes absolutely necessary. A number of manufacturers pelletiser for wood pellets has also been applying heat sensor technology at the pelletiser that they make as an option for the producers of wood pellets. This technology includes installation of high heat sensor directly on a roller to monitor in real time the critical temperature. The intended use of these technologies is to reduce downtime and accidents caused by overheating on the roller and the bearing shaft so that production targets can be achieved more easily.
As for supplies of raw material supply of wood pellets, wood sawmill wastes and wood processing wastes could be used but the energy plantations or forests will be the best choice, especially for long-term orientation. Good forest management service that will produce a sustainable supply of raw materials. Optimizing the use of land in a number of locations, the selection of appropriate plant species and supported tropical climate conditions that support are some of the things that support the integration of energy plantation or forest with wood pellet business. Because of the availability of raw materials is one of the key success factors in the business of wood pellets, so it needs special attention of its own.